Directions:In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[A] Stay calm
[B] Stay humble
[C] Don’t make judgments
[D] Be realistic about the risks
[E] Decide whether to wait
[F] Ask permission to disagree
[G] Identify a shared goal
How to Disagree with Someone More Powerful than You
Your boss proposes a new initiative you think won’t work. Your senior colleague outlines a project timeline you think is unrealistic. What do you say when you disagree with someone who has more power than you do? How do you decide whether it’s worth speaking up? And if you do, what exactly should you say? Here’s how to disagree with someone more powerful than you.
You may decide it’s best to hold off on voicing your opinion. Maybe you haven’t finished thinking the problem through, the whole discussion was a surprise to you, or you want to get a clearer sense of what the group thinks. If you think other people are going to disagree too, you might want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience or information to your thinking—all the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid. It’s also a good idea to delay the conversation if you’re in a meeting or other public space. Discussing the issue in private will make the powerful person feel less threatened.
Before you share your thoughts, think about what the powerful person cares about—it may be the credibility of their team or getting a project done on time. You’re more likely to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a higher purpose. When you do speak up, don’t assume the link will be clear. You’ll want to state it overtly, contextualizing your statements so that you’re seen not as a disagreeable underling but as a colleague who’s trying to advance a shared goal. The discussion will then become more like a chess game than a boxing match.
This step may sound overly deferential, but it’s a smart way to give the powerful person psychological safety and control. You can say something like, “I know we seem to be moving toward a first-quarter commitment here. I have reasons to think that won’t work. I’d like to lay out my reasoning. Would that be OK?” This gives the person a choice, allowing them to verbally opt in. And, assuming they say yes, it will make you feel more confident about voicing your disagreement.
You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red, but do whatever you can to remain neutral in both your words and actions. When your body language communicates reluctance or anxiety, it undercuts the message. It sends a mixed message, and your counterpart gets to choose what to read. Deep breaths can help, as can speaking more slowly and deliberately. When we feel panicky we tend to talk louder and faster. Simply slowing the pace and talking in an even tone helps the other person calm down and does the same for you. It also makes you seem confident, even if you aren’t.
Emphasize that you’re offering your opinion, not gospel truth. It may be a well-informed, well-researched opinion, but it’s still an opinion, so talk tentatively and slightly understate your confidence. Instead of saying something like, “If we set an end-of-quarter deadline, we’ll never make it,” say, “This is just my opinion, but I don’t see how we will make that deadline.” Having asserted your position (as a position, not as a fact) demonstrates equal curiosity about other views. Remind the person that this is your point of view, and then invite critique. Be open to hearing other opinions.
41.【答案】E(Decide whether to wait)
该段首句为中心句，提到“hold off on voicing your opinion”意为“别急着发表自己的意见”，该段倒数第二句也指出“delay the conversation”意为“延迟对话”，均与E项线索词“wait”对应，所以本题选E。
42.【答案】G(Identify a shared goal)
该段首句设置提建议的情境，指出分享观点前需要“think about what the powerful person cares about”(想想那些有权利的人关心什么), 第二句也提到“higher purpose”(更高的目标)。同时倒数第二句中的“shared goal”(共同目标)是G项实词在原文中的复现，所以本题选G。
43.【答案】F(Ask permission to disagree)
该段倒数第二句话提出作者本段所提建议能产生的效果。“This gives” 前后连接建议内容和潜在结果。作者将具体建议内容举例为“You can say …‘Would that be OK?’”,效果部分提到“choice”和“they say yes”，由此看出，建议是与“请求许可”相关，与F项“Ask permission”对应，所以本题选F。
本题通过段首和倒数第二句解题。段首描述情境，提出建议。前半句“heart racing”和“face turning red”表明紧张的状态，“But”用转折结构说明需要遏制前面提到的状态，故建议应意为“使不紧张”。倒数第二句总结评论作者本段所提的建议，其中“help the other person calm down”与A项中关键词“calm”对应，所以本题选A。
45.【答案】B (Stay humble)
该段所提建议的中心句为段末句,“Be open to hearing other opinions”意为“对他人观点保持开放态度”，与B项线索词最为接近。且段内“invite critique”(请别人评判)也与B项“humble”谦逊和虚心的含义对应，所以本题选B。